|World Heritage - Unesco|
Plaza de Armas.
|Coordinates||13 ° 31'S 71 ° 59'O|
|Year Registration||1983 (Session VII)|
|1 First described in the List of World Heritage .
2 Classification according to UNESCO.
It Was the capital of the Inca Empire and one of the MOST important cities of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1983, is the largest tourist destination Currently in Peru, With an annual influx of about one million visitors in 2008.
Two Inca foundation legends attribute to STI STI first head of state, a legendary Manco Capac, With His sister and consort Mama Ocllo. In Both states That the place was by the sun god Revealed (Inti) to the founders Start After a pilgrimage south of losIncas Sacred Valley.
Archaeological and anthropological data For Has Been studying the actual process of occupation of Cuzco. The consensus Suggests That, due to the collapse of the kingdom of Tiahuanaco Was the migration of Its People. [Citation needed] This group of about 500 men gradually Would Have Been ESTABLISHED Huatanay River Valley, a process culminate That With The founding of Cuzco. Approximate date is unknown, But Because It is AGREED That site traces the whereis Located Already Inhabited City Was the 3000 years ago. Howeve, considering only the location and capital of the Inca Empire (mid-thirteenth century) in Cuzco Appears to be the oldest city Inhabited inthe Americas.
Ancient chronicles as the chronicler Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboaaffirm the Existence of ethnic groups in the valley of Cuzco Before the rise of the Inca Empire. This author mentions losGuallas, and as the Sahuasiray theAntasayas oldest Inhabitants, while theAlcavizas, Culunchimas Copalimayta and are more recent Inhabitants Considered. Also Know That Inhabited Ayarmacas the region, Being the Only Ones That Were Not Bowed by the Incas, becoming rivals in the domain hismain of the region.
Cuzco Was the capital and seat of Government of the Kingdom ofthe Incas and Remained at the Beginning of the imperial era, becoming the largest city in the Andes and South America. Thisgave rise centralism and Became the main cultural center and hubof religious worship. Pachacutec is Attributed to the ruler of Cuzco To Have made aspiritual and Political center. Came to power in Pachacutec 1438, and I and His Five Decades Tupac Yupanqui are dedicated to the organization and Reconciliation of the Different tribal groups under Their control, Including Lupaca and Colla. During The TupacYupanqui Pachacutec and the dominance of Cuzco meat to Quito, to the north and to the Maule River in the south, the Integrated inhabitantsculturally Than 4.500 km of mountain ranges.
Also Believed That It is the original design of the city is the work ofPachacutec. The plane of ancient Cuzco Outlined puma-shaped, With The square in the central position Occupy Haucaypata theanimal's chest. The cat's head Would Be Located on the hill of Sacsayhuaman WHERE thefortress. The Incas organized so That Their administrative division the limits of the four regions of the empire in the main square match ofCuzco.
Another earthquake in 1950 struck the city Causing the destruction of more than one third of all STIs buildings. The city Began as a major Itself toconstitute tourism focus and Began Receiving an INCREASED number of Tourists. Since the 1990s, tourism Took a special role in the economy of the City with the expansion of hotel Consequent Activities. Currently, Cuzco is Peru's main tourist destination. For ITS part, the city urban growth Maintains STI, now spread to the Districts Also of SanSebastian and San Jeronimo. Under the most of Daniel Estrada Perez, a supporter of the Quechua Language MayorAcademy of Cuzco in 1995 Between 1983 and introduces new official name of the city and formalizedQosqo-old Quechua names of the streets.
The age and significance, the center of the city retains Many buildings, plazas and streets of pre-Columbian and colonial buildings times, Which led to it Being Declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1983. Among the main sights of the city are:
Barrio de San Blas
The neighborhood where are the artisans, craft workshops and shops, is one of The Most Picturesque of the city. Its streets are steep and narrow with old houses built by the Spanish over important Inca foundations. It you have an attractive square and parish church in Cuzco theoldest built in 1563, Which you have to carvedwooden Regarded As the epitome pulpit of colonial Cuzco.
The Quechua name of This neighborhood is Toq'ocachi Which means "the hole in the salt."
Calle Hatun Rumiyuq
This is the most visited by Tourists. On the street Hatun Rumiyoq ("Of the Rock Mayor") Was the palace of Inca Roca, Which currentlybelongs to the Archbishop's Palace.That street runs In This from the Plaza de Armas to the San Blasneighborhood, You Can See the stone of twelve angles.
Convento e Iglesia de la Merced
Its foundation dates from 1536. The first September Mercy Destroyed by the earthquake WAS of 1650 and the Rebuilding of the church and convent WAS completed in 1675.
Its cloisters of Baroque and Renaissance choir stalls and particularly highlightsthe, paintings and wood carvings colonial.
You Can Also view a custodial gold and precious stones and 130 kilos weighing22 cm tall.
In Fact, the first cathedral of Cuzco is the Triumph Church, built in1539 on the Inca Viracocha's palace. Today, This church is a chapel of the Cathedral assistant. Between 1560 and 1664 built the Basilica Cathedral WAS of This City. To this end, the stone as the main WAS USED material extracted from quarries and reused blocks of red Partly granitefrom the Sacsayhuaman fortress Known as. This great cathedral, interior flat presents late-Gothic Renaissance, Baroque and Plateresque, you have one of the MOST outstandingexamples of colonial goldsmith. Also important are carved woodenaltars. This City Since WAS Developed painting on canvas in the "CuzcoSchool painting," precisely in the cathedral You Can see major exhibitions of local artists of the time. It is the seat of the Archdiocese of Cuzco ..
Plaza de Armas
"Plaza of the warrior" was at the time of Called the Incas. This squarewas the scene of important events in the Several history of This City, as the proclamation by Francisco Pizarro in the conquest of Cuzco.
Similarly, the Plaza de Armas Was the scene of the death of TupacAmaru II, considered the leader of the indigenous resistance.
The Spanish built in a square stone arches, With work Cuzco, Which Endures to this day. Here are the cathedral and the church of La Compañía.
Formed Cuzco spans the valley by the river and the surrounding hills Huatanay. Its climate is dry and mild Generally. It've twodistinct seasons: a dry season April and October entre, With sunny days, cold nights with Frost and average temperature of 13 ° C, and a rainy season from November to March, average temperature 12 ° C. On sunny days the temperature Reaches 20 ° C, although the light air of the mountain is cold Usually.
The age and significance, the center of the city retains many buildings, plazas and streets of pre-Columbian times and colonial buildings, which led to it being declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1983. Among the main sights of the city are:
Barrio de San Blas
The neighborhood where are the artisans, craft workshops and shops, is one of the most picturesque of the city. Its streets are steep and narrow with old houses built by the Spanish over important Inca foundations. It has an attractive square and the oldest parish church in Cuzco built in 1563, which has a carved wooden pulpit regarded as the epitome of colonial Cuzco.
The Quechua name of this neighborhood is Toq'ocachi which means "the hole in the salt."
Calle Hatun Rumiyuq
This is the most visited by tourists. On the street Hatun Rumiyoq ("Of the Rock Mayor") was the palace of Inca Roca, which currently belongs to the Archbishop's Palace.
In this street that runs from the Plaza de Armas to the San Blas neighborhood, you can see the stone of twelve angles.
Convento e Iglesia de la Merced
Its foundation dates from 1536. The first set Mercy was destroyed by the earthquake of 1650 and the rebuilding of the church and convent was completed in 1675.
Its cloisters of Baroque and Renaissance and particularly highlights the choir stalls, colonial paintings and wood carvings.
You can also view a custodial gold and precious stones weighing 22 kilos and 130 cm high .
In fact, the first cathedral of Cuzco is the Triumph Church , built in 1539 on the Inca Viracocha's palace. Today, this church is a chapel of the Cathedral assistant.
Between 1560 and 1664 was built the Basilica Cathedral of this city. To this end, the stone was used as the main material, extracted from quarries and partly reused blocks of red granite from the fortress known as Sacsayhuaman.
This great cathedral, interior flat Renaissance presents late-Gothic, Baroque and Plateresque, has one of the most outstanding examples of colonial goldsmith. Important are also carved wooden altars.
Since this city was developed on canvas painting in the "Cuzco School painting," precisely in the cathedral you can see major exhibitions of local artists of the time. It is the seat of the Archdiocese of Cuzco.
Plaza de Armas
"Plaza of the warrior" was called at the time of the Incas. This square has been the scene of several important events in the history of this city, as the proclamation by Francisco Pizarro in the conquest of Cuzco.
Similarly, the Plaza de Armas was the scene of the death of Tupac Amaru II, considered the leader of the indigenous resistance.
The Spanish built in a square stone arches, with labor Cuzco, which endures to this day. Here are the cathedral and the church of La Compañía.
Church of the Company
This church whose construction was initiated by the Jesuits in 1576 on the basis of Amarucancha or palace of Inca Huayna Capac, is considered one of the best examples of colonial baroque in the Americas.
Its facade is carved in stone, as seen in the picture, and its high altar is of carved wood and covered with gold leaf. It was built on an underground chapel. Additionally, highlights two chapels, one of Lourdes and the ancient oratory of San Ignacio de Loyola.
This temple has a valuable collection of colonial paintings of the Cusco School.
Coricancha and Convent of Santo Domingo
The Coricancha ( Quri Kancha ) was the most important shrine dedicated to the god Solen the time the Inca Empire. This temple was called the "site of gold" and all its walls were covered with sheets of gold by the Incas .
Taking this structure as a base, here was built the Convent of Santo Domingo, Renaissance style. The building, one baroque tower height exceeds the other buildings in this city.
Inside is a large collection of paintings from the Cuzco School of painting.
Cuzco was the center of the state cult of the Sun, home to the main temple of the sun religion, the Coricancha (in Castilian) or Qurikancha (Quechua: gold enclosure ), possessing the main Aqllawasi or house of the chosen of the sun, and burial sites of the different clans or dead emperors Panakas , and is the habitual residence of the Inca ruler, a living god, and the higher clergy state, represented by the umu Willka or high priest. Cuzco welcomed the large imperial ceremonies and festivities crowded as the Inti Raymi or Sun Festival is taking place during the winter solstice-the solar new year which is celebrated every June 24 on the esplanade of Sacsayhuaman.
Currently most of the population belongs to the Catholic Church, being archiepiscopal Cuzco.
Transport and communications
The Alejandro Velasco Astete International Airport is located in the city of Cuzco, the city's biggest tourist attraction in Peru. It receives flights from several parts of Peru and many international flights. Their tracks are fully paved. More of 1 700 000 people pass through the airport annually.
It was named after a Peruvian pilot Alejandro Velasco Astete who was the first person to fly across the Andes in 1925. Made the first flight from Lima to Cuzco. That same year, in an air show in the city of Puno lost control of his plane and avoid crashing into spectators, lost altitude and died on impact.
The airport is the main gateway of the city of Cuzco, which is a fundamental core of the tour in South America, and is an obligatory step to reach the ruins of Machu Picchu. This airport is the largest airflow in the south.
Interestingly, being in a major tourist city, the U.S. company American Airlines for some time began direct flights to Cuzco from the United States without touching the Lima airport.
The Cusco airport is equipped with all comforts, to respond effectively to the many tourists who visit the imperial city. It was the first country in which boarding bridges installed or sleeves. The runway is paved with the highest standards, with a length of 3400 meters and a width of 45. It is perfectly capable of receiving Boeing 747 as one of the reports CORPAC.
The city receives numerous daily flights from cities such as Lima, Arequipa, Tacna, Juliaca, Iquitos, Puerto Maldonado and Ica, and internationally consistent receives flights from cities like La Paz, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Santiago de Chile, Rio Brancoy São Paulo.
It is also connected by rail with the cities of Puno and Arequipa. Finally, by road, it is connected with the cities of Puerto Maldonado, Arequipa, Puno and Abancay. The road connects it with the city of Abancay is the fastest to reach the capital city after a trip of more than 20 hours filled with stunning scenery across the Peruvian regions of Apurimac, Ayacucho, Ica and Lima.
There is also a rail system which lead to the ancient Inca citadel of Machu Picchu. The tour begins in the capital city of Cuzco in the Andes region that begins with a series of changes flush locally called "The Zig-Zag" on the outskirts of Cuzco before making a stop in the village of Poroy.
The train then descends from the highest point in the Sacred Valley at the foot of the Andes. Before arriving at Machu Picchu, the train travels along the Urubamba River. The train was down by heavy rains lashed the region, but the system was restored.
As the administrative and economic capital of Cuzco Region, the city has large number of both public health centers and private. Public health institutions that are present in the city are:
- Ministry of Health
- Cusco Regional Hospital
- Antonio Lorena Hospital
- Level IV Anselmo Guevara Hospital Velazco
- Metro Polyclinic
- Policlinico San Sebastian
- Santiago Polyclinic
- Policlinico La Recoleta